Increasing levels of community violence victimization were significantly associated with PTSD symptoms, and even after controlling for being a victim of violence, simply witnessing community violence was significantly related to stress symptoms.
Additionally, as hypothesized, the relations between community violence exposure and mother's report of internalizing and externalizing problems were moderated by the child's perception of maternal acceptance.
Moderate and high levels of maternal acceptance acted as a buffer, protecting children exposed to community violence from developing emotional and behavioral problems.
Bailey, B.N., Hannigan, J.H., Delaney-Black, V., Covington, C, Sokol, R.J. (2006). The Role of Maternal Acceptance in the Relation Between Community Violence Exposure and Child Functioning. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34(1), 57-70.